The PULS annotated questionnaire

The full PULS questionnaire along with commentary on the questions.

Publication date

August 1, 2022


Professor Nigel J. Balmer
Director of Research
Victorian Legal Services Board + Commissioner
Victorian Legal Services Board + Commissioner
Pascoe Pleasence
Professor of Empirical Legal Studies
University College London
University College London
Hugh M. McDonald
Acting Research Director
Victoria Law Foundation
Victoria Law Foundation
Rebecca L. Sandefur
School Director & Professor, The Sanford School
Arizona State University
Arizona State University


This report sets out the full text and routing of the PULS questionnaire, which is currently in the field, along with commentary on the theoretical background to questions, rationale for their inclusion, details of technical development, references to relevant past studies, as well as PULS showcards.

The Public Understanding of Law Survey (PULS[)]() is an innovative hybrid which adopts approaches from a rich tradition of legal need survey research, with new thinking on the conceptualisation and measurement of legal capability. The annotated PULS questionnaire illustrates the approach.  

We wanted to make the questionnaire available in advance of any survey findings as part of our commitment to open science, and so others can draw upon the PULS approach.  

Using the PULS questionnaire

We would love you to use or adapt the PULS questionnaire in full or part, and hope you find it useful! And if you do find it useful we would love you to cite the PULS annotated questionnaire, which you do like the below.

Balmer N.J., Pleasence, P., McDonald, H.M. & Sandefur, R.L. (2022). The Public Understanding of  Law Survey (PULS) Annotated Questionnaire. Melbourne: Victoria Law Foundation.

Understanding the impact of the PULS questionnaire

Join us on the journey! Please let us know how you plan to use, or how you have used, the PULS annotated questionnaire by getting in contact.

We appreciate your feedback, as it will help us understand the impact and utility of this questionnaire in the research community.  

Key findings

No items found.

Implications and way forward

Learn more about PULS

Visit the PULS website to get the latest reports, resources and to learn more about what we are achieving with the PULS.

Understand better justice

Data and empirical evidence to help understand access to justice and build a better justice system.